Economic Conditions. The characteristics of the land resources of the municipality dictated the economic conditions that have prevailed in the town. It is not surprising then that the major economic activities include:
- Agricultural crop production and processing. The presence of abundant irrigation water source stimulated a highly productive agricultural sector especially for rice production that is extensively grown in the municipality. About 97% of the municipal agricultural lands or bout 9,421 hectares are devoted to rice production. Rice production is amply supported by a wide array of irrigation facilities being operated by either the national government, by the communities or private individuals. A total of about 4,126 hectares during dry season and 4,541 hectares during wet are provided with irrigation water. Aside from this, other major crops are grown in some areas that rely on rainfalls which include: corn, mango, root crops and other vegetable.
- Livestock production and processing. As earlier mentioned, the municipality is blessed with about 3,678 hectares of classified pasture areas. However only small portions of these lands are actually developed for pasture range. In private lands, there is a two hectare livestock farm in Barangay Mamonit, in addition there are two poultry layer farm with a combined area of 9,000 sq.m. and in Poblacion Sur a piggery farm.
- Forest production and processing. The DENR has issued 3 ITPs (Industrial Tree Plantations) covering a total area of 25.3 hectares which can be found in Brgys. Labney, Bigbiga and Nambalan. The rich woodlands resulted to the birth of furniture making in the municipality. The people of the areas near the forest zones responded to the potentials of the available resources in their immediate environment and learned the rudiments and skills necessary for furniture making. In addition, the forestland also produces minor products like “buho” for sawali making and “bikal” (a variety of bamboo), processed as a drying sticks for Tobacco leaves or even hats and bags. Cogon grass is seasonally harvested and sold as roofing materials.
- Sand, gravel and mineral. Mayantoc is widely known in Central Luzon, especially in Tarlac, Pampanga and Nueva Ecija as a source of first class gravel certified for use in high-rise buildings. The municipality boasts of extensive deposits of boulders and rocks that are processed into different sizes. This non-metallic mineral resource has become a lucrative business. In addition to gravel, other minerals that are estimated to have commercial value include; white clay and chromite in Labney, manganese in Bigbiga and copper minerals in Bigbiga and Sitio Calao in Brgy. San Jose .
- Commerce and Industry. As of 2007 there are about 209 business establishments in Mayantoc. Retail Service is the most dominant business and enumerated under this category are the sari-sari store, farm supplies, drug stores, the gen. merchandize, motor parts, other public market vendors, among others, followed by trading. Palay is the most commonly traded commodity and this is again due to the economic condition in the municipality. Personal services which include refreshment parlors, carinderia, beauty parlors, funeral parlors, medical clinics and tailoring, ranks third.
- Tourism. Mayantoc is popularly known as the Summer Capital of Tarlac. It once boasted of natural scenic and recreational spots. Camiling River has once been attractive to domestic tourist for its clear water and potential resort areas. Added to this is the Calao Natural Park that had a pool facility and forest environment. To date, the municipality of Mayantoc with the collaboration of DENR, is embarking on a rehabilitation of Calao Natural Park including the development of an eco-trail. It has the distinct characteristics of providing a forest environment that is readily accessible to potential tourists.